The work begun on Tuesday 9th of August when we held our first meeting at Tandale ward office with the Tandale community members chosen at hamlet level to represent the community in the project. The meeting was chaired by Mr kokoyo and Mark, and the following were discussed:
Welcome by Tandale ward executive officer
Introduction about the project (brief of map kibera trust)
Introduce trainers/ technology
A look at the witness/ushaidi plat form briefly
Workplan for next three weeks
Questions and answers session
Way forward
During the discussion, the objective of the project was stated, which was to introduce use of participatory technology for development in Tandale by producing a base map and starting community media initiative. The tools involved in this process included the use of GPS, Computer, video camera, and open street map software. Besides, the Community members were introduced to the programme such as how to use GPS, to open street map and to upload data from GPS to files for operation of map making. Thus, the community where introduced with the knowledge of the computer and GPS.
After the introduction on the project, we students from Ardhi University were divided into groups of their own choices according to the tasks to be performed: Editing, Story-telling, s atellite image and Mapping. From the community members, each member was selected according to his origin in tandale whereby five groups of mixed students and community members were formed according to the number of subwards found in tandale which are: Pakacha, Sokoni, Muhalitani, Kwatumbo, Mkunduge
These groups were given the task of collecting data in the respective subward and produce it map. Each group in the five formed group begun working according to instructions given and was given one computer and one GPS to carry out the task. The assignment was to go to the site to take nodes points of (primary and nursery), boundaries and water tanks. Coordinate taken were less attributes and more spatial data from the site that was a need to write down attributes data also with the aid of photos by camera. After a hour we return to the offices to download the data from the site from GPS and save them to a file on the computer.
How to retrieve data from GPS:
Open GPS
GO to set up
Go interface
On the computer the file will appear which will help to take to take file from the memory card. Then, you go to GPSbabel program to retrieve point taken from the GPS:
Go to gpsbabelife
You write name of the name of file: year, month, date.point.gpx
The use of josm
Go to josm
Select files
Clik open
After this procedure, I learned also how download data and how to up load data for the final editing of the map. In addition to this, I have learned how to use the preset command which allows me to edit each feature with it representation on the ground. The most important thing is the final map which shows all existing features especially the sanitation and health facilities available in the area. Finally, we continued with the mapping processes by incorporating tracks (footways) and main features such as water tanks, buildings and open spaces. The community members were urged to give different problems/issues they are facing in their area of residence and the following were identified:
Poor Sanitation
Poor Health services
Lack of Accessibility in the area
Poor Educational facilities
Lack of Solid waste management
Inadequate water supply
Conclusively, the work has been a good study to me for I have known how to use the openstreetmap sofwares and exchange ideas with the community. Besides I have witnessed full involvement of the community as the outcome of community participation in the project as the e of creation of sense of ownership.
I will give strategies to provide security in the area.

Tandale is an administrative ward in the Kinondoni district of the Dar es Salaam Region of Tanzania. According to the 2002 census, the ward has a total population of 45,058. It is among informal settlements in Dar es Salaam. Tandale economy is mostly based on the tradable goods at sokoni, the Tandale market. Most of the farmers around Dar es Salaam take their agricultural produce to Sokoni market (Tandale ward).The most surprising thing about this market is that the security is too poor for there are repeated cases of stealing and crimes. These cases occur not only at the market but also in the whole Tandale settlement. Safety in most of informal settlement is a big problem that needs to be solved to guarantee security of the residents. The most affected groups are women, new entries and business men. The following are the major causes of crime and stealing in tandale settlement:
All streets that were once wide enough for vehicular circulation have been invaded/encroached by structures/buildings and are now very narrow.
There are many unfinished and abandoned buildings in the area which are hideouts for potential criminals.
The narrow streets are completely dark, not named and there is no light around the buildings although some houses have electricity! The residents feel it is very unsafe to walk around the area during the night and even in the early evening or morning. Sometimes they feel it is also risky during the day when they are walking alone.
Visibility is very limited due to housing congestion and darkness.
Unemployment of young men who just roaming in the area. As we walked around we could see groups of young men sitting around at jobless corners doing nothing.
Excessive Alcoholism among young men leading them to things they do not plan for

In order to generate solutions to personal safety, one needs the opportunity to be involved and heard by responsible authorities. By involving all groups of people from all parts of the settlement in a safety audit, it will make easy for the local authority (municipality) to understand what people think concerning crime and the immediate solutions to bring about the necessary changes in partnership with the authority. The little research I have done by asking some of the community members has shown that the residents in Tandale perceive the safety problems in their area as diverse, due to both the physical design and socio-economic planning. In fact, somehow partnership and awareness between those with authority and the affected is necessary. Involvement of all human categories (men, women and youth) in safety planning and design is necessary; this will include not only the enhancement of the physical environment of an area and enforcement of municipal rules but also takes into account the socio-economic structure, political and cultural behavior of the society which gives a holistic approach in crime prevention. Therefore, planning for safety becomes a multi-sectorial process that needs involvement of all stakeholders including the local community and the local authority to effect implementation.
Some possible solutions
Elimination or destroying hideouts of potential criminals: a number of old unfinished buildings or dilapidated structures which are used by criminals as hideouts. Local authorities could send notices to demolish /complete or auction the buildings to competent builders.

Establishment of lighting in the street. Due to lack of street lighting, the area is completely dark at night; this creates fear of crime and a potential environment for criminals. The local community if empowered can carry out local campaigns to illuminate the area on self-help basis. The plan should be for each household to set up a bulb in front and behind their houses, and possibly on both sides. Lighting around the houses can scare petty offenders. But for the streets, the municipality and other partners should provide lighting.

Creation of employment to jobless people (youth). The crime level and stealing in tandale are linked women with the socio-economic problems in the community. The problems of youth unemployment as a root cause of the problem. There is need for the municipality to work with youth to develop income /job generating activities to engage the jobless youths and women in the area. For examples, the waste collections as subcontractors to the municipality to develop an alternative activity to women who are currently involved in local brew selling at night, prostitution, etc. Women or youth groups could be incorporated in the ongoing community contracts for garbage collection and disposal currently organized by the municipality. In this way a more reliable employment and income is insured.

There should be the creation of youth loan association at the local enabling youth to borrow loan for income small business so as to generate income

Security groups. Despite the fact that community policing carried out by community security groups (sungusungu) in collaboration with the police is crucial but not the only way to bring safety into the neighborhood. The security group should be strengthened by adding more young. This will work as part of their employment and also help to maintain security in the settlement.
Conclusively, by bringing to the attention of the municipality the concerns of the tandale residents regarding safety in their area, it is possible to involve the municipal staff through the repeated safety audit and make them to share the concern by allocating some funds to initiate the implementation of some of the issues raised by the community. If improved, it will impact to other areas with similar problems. The community will learn that living with the fear of crime without reporting the fear, safety will never come about. Laws and regulations alone cannot address the problem. Therefore, a new approach – customer designed to local problem is essential. The safer cities’ approach tailored to partnerships at the community level concerning their perceptions of safety, especially the most vulnerable – the poor, women, aged and children is very appropriate.



Tandale A Student’s Perspective II

Tandale is an informal/unplanned settlement located in Kinondoni municipality in Manzese ward. This informal settlement is facing a lot of challenges as there is no the following basic services;
Shortage and poor quality of water supply
Road Inaccessibility
Sanitation problems
Project aim
This project is aiming at helping the community, so that they can speak themselves about their problems. It helps them by mapping the services available in their community so that everybody in the World can understand and learn what is happening in Tandale.
From the first day on 09th/August/2011, students together with the Tandale community members and the training facilitator, we have been discussing about the project, its objectives and what are the final outputs the projects is intending to reach. On the beginning day we were also shown how to use the Global Positioning System. The community members also were able to map the features using GPS.
Current situation in Tandale
Tandale was empty without features which can justify the presence of human being on this place. The Tandale map was like the bare land on the desert, whereby there is no trees neither anything else which can be seen on map.
After these three weeks of this mapping project, the Tandale is now updated on the open the street map. It is easier by this time to access Tandale on the internet and look where different community services are located. Now churches, schools, shops, footways, dumping site, ect.. are now on the Tandale map.
This will not only benefits the Tandale people but everybody in Tanzania can enjoy this project, as it helps to identify the location of several services. There is no need of asking where the guest house are located, when you have a mobile phone with GPS and connected to the internet. You can access the Tandale map and have a look on what you need to see.
Lesson learnt
Actually I’m able to update features on the open street map in case that I have the GPS, this was something which I could not afford before. I was asking myself how can someone update data on the satellite image? This project is the answer from my question which has last since the period I have joined Ardhi University. I have also noted that, this project helps the community themselves to express themselves and looking for the solution of their own problems.
This is because the current mapping project will help the community to talk spatially as they can show where there is no water tape, how accessibility is a problem, ect.. This can attract the infrastructure donors to see this, there is no need of talking more about their problems, but they can use this map and being more understandable. It is also helpful for any sector who can be working in Tandale, because they can map whatever they wish to do.
The most powerful force of this project is; its ability to allow the community members to be part and parcel of it, by mapping themselves and sharing their stories. It also provides the space where by there is the room for the stories which explains the situation on the Tandale ground, if you need to know about Tandale. It is not necessary to travel to Tandale but you can lean a lot from the blog and the web page of this projects. The majority of community members at the beginning of this training were computer illiterate but today they are typing and work hardly for their own interest.
The problem of sanitation is due to the following issues;
Lack of proper location of dumping solid waste
Poor drainage system and flooding
Unpaved drainage channels
Small drainage channels width which fails to accommodate water volume
Improper management of liquid waste
Pit latrines which pollute under ground water
Open drainage system which gives bad odor
Location of food vending near solid waste

Lack of specific location of dumping solid waste
There is no specific area for collecting solid waste from different land uses; the most predominant solid waste in Tandale is the domestic solid waste. Which instead of being collected, waste is stocked and throws out on the road, drainage channels and near the buildings.
Poor drainage system and flooding
There is no sufficient drainage which can accommodate the rain runoff, after the rain, there is water stagnating into different areas and causes flooding eruption of diseases like cholera, and diarrhea. This also creates the environment for developing the mosquitoes which leads to development of Malaria.
Unpaved drainage channels
Most of drainage channels are not constructed using the cement. All of them are earth ones; this is dangerous as it can create soil erosion.
Small drainage channels width which fails to accommodate water volume
The width of the drainage channels does not support the speed of water, this is due to the fact that the volume is higher that the design capacity of the drainage channels in managing floods.
Uncollected solid and liquid waste
Solid waste is like as there is no collection, because most of parts Tandale are full of solid waste, and waste is channeled into the open drainage channels.
Pit latrines which pollute underground water
The majority of Tandale people as low and medium income earners, they are using the pit latrines as their toilets. At the same time others are using the water wells as the source of their drinking water. This means that all water wells near the pit latrines are likely to be polluted.
Open drainage system which gives bad odor
Drainage channels are not covered, so this affects the health of people because food like chapatti, Mandazi are sold along the road near these channels. People are at thigh risks of being contaminated with the diseases as mentioned above.
Location of food vending near solid waste
The location of incompatible activities in the same place, food is supposed to be located far away from solid waste collection points both permanent and temporary collections points. The reason of doing this is to increase the food safety from diseases transmission.
S/N Issues Characteristics Strategies Advantages Shortfalls

*Lack of proper location of solid waste
*Scatted solid waste into different places in Tandale *Design of solid waste temporary location points ( 150m-Interval-distance)
*Use of caterpillars for collecting waste from temporary collection to secondary points
*Formation of solid waste management group for each streets
*Household contribution of 500Tsh for managing solid waste
*Enforcing by-laws for those not obeying the law *It can reduce 60% of solid waste *It’s expensive to implement
*There is no public located land for this service
*Not all household can afford to pay 500Tsh, again some household produces more than others
*It is easier to implement in planned rather than unplanned settlement like Tandale
2 *Poor drainage system and flooding
*Flooding of settlement and water stagnant water
*There is no consistency of the width and depth
*Only few areas have drainage channels *Increasing width and depth of the existing drainage channels 1- 1.2m respectively
*Increase the new drainage channels in the whole Tandale area *It is likely to reduce the flooding risks to the people and their properties *Unavailability of land(space)
* Expensive to implement
3 Unpaved drainage channels
*Earth channels *Construction of paved drainage channels
*Planting grasses along the drainage channels *Durable and resistant to soil erosion due to water flowing speed *Plants can increase mosquitoes hence the increase of Malaria
4 Small drainage channels width which fails to accommodate water volume
*Narrow width and depth *Increasing width and depth of the existing drainage
channels 1- 1.2m respectively
*Solution to flooding as water velocity(speed) will increase *Unavailability of land (space for accommodating new drainage channels)
5 Improper management of liquid waste
*Waste water is channeled into the open drainage channels
*Stagnant of waste water into the street(flooding from channels) *Liquid waste should be located in closed channels
*Design of collection waste water treatment plant
*Use of recycled waste water for irrigation purposes *It is safe and healthier for Tandale people *It needs more space and funds for its implementation
6 Pit latrines which pollute underground water
*Water wells are located near pit latrines *Water wells or water sources are to be far away from pit latrines
*The digging of water wells must be deeper about 6m of depth *Free undergraduate water pollution *There is shortage of land for separating these activities in many plots
*Deeper water wells need money
7 Open drainage system which gives bad odor
*Drainage channels are not closed * Use of slab for covering the drainage channels *Discourage the deposit of solid waste into the channels
*Free water flowing due to absence of solid waste in the drainage channels *It needs paid staffs for maintaining high cleaning of the drainage channels most of time
*Robbers can use the open channels as the place for persecuting people because it is hidden to know what is happening inside

8 Location of food vending near solid waste
Mixture of incompatible activities( food and solid waste) *Separation of at least 10m
*Supply of Basket for temporally deposing solid waster
*Introduce by lays which the community *It is healthier for Tandale people
*It does not need skilled people for its implementation *Displaced food vendors can lose their economy hence poverty for them
*These basket can be stolen and being sold

Conclusion; The open street map project is very wonderful for informal settlement as it helps the society to speak out. These communities are isolated from others, nobody in other place knows and care about what is happening in these places. But this project will help the poor people to have the map and use it for developing their life and attract others to know about it. Currently the community is able to create their own map; there is the sense of ownership because they have done it themselves. It is very easier for the Tandale people to report whatever is happening, makes their life by bringing people together. It can also help them to discuss spatially concerning the infrastructure issues through their map.


Tandale From The Student Perspective

Tandale is the most socially excluded neighbourhood in Dar es-Salaam (financial capital of Tanzania). Dar es-Salaam (“haven of peace” in Arabic) was founded in about 1860. Tandale came about as a slum area around the financial centre of Dares- Salaam in the 40s. Tandale as a whole is an informal settlement comprising of six sub-wards which are Sokoni, Muharatani, Mkunduge, Kwatumbo, Pakacha, and Mtogole covering approximately 90 hectares of land with an estimated population of about 71,250.

Tandale is densely populated with 95% of the residents living below poverty line. Most of them are engaging in informal sector such as food vendors (“Mama Lishe” in Swahili), small shops (“Genge” in Swahili).

Due to informal urbanization of Tandale, one of the key problems facing Tandale community is inadequate infrastructure compounded by lack of clear policy framework and effective programs for meeting the needs of residential of informal settlement.

These infrastructural problems include poor sewage disposal, uncollected solid waste, poor drainage system, poor sanitation, illegal development of land, proliferation of informal housing without adequate provision of basic infrastructure facilities and services but among of all these problems inadequate water supply are the serious problem.

Many reasons can be attributed to this: weak planning by-laws, poor urban governance, inefficient management practices, and inadequate financial resources. In case of inadequacy water supply in Tandale ward the situation is explained as follow.

Existing Situation of Water Supply in Tandale Ward
From community needs assessment done during site visit, water supply was the highest priority. Issues associated with water include, its source, cost, availability and distribution. Access and availability of water is limited.

Up to 85% of the households draw water from kiosks (private and community owned) at an average of TSH 200-400/= per 20 litres bucket. Kiosks which are owned by the community normally its water generated from deep wells, water salinity is high from these kiosks and only these community kiosks had physical superstructure and water storage tanks. In case of private Kiosks water might come from deep wells or they buy from Lorries which distribute water across the ward, most of these private kiosks had only water storage tanks this was due to high cost of construction of physical superstructure where by only few can afford.

The average distance to the nearest Kiosk is 40 metres and consumption ranges from 16-20 liters per person per day. Frequent shortages due to unreliable power and vandalism contribute to an increase in prices, distance walked and time spent. Within Tandale the quality of water decreases significantly hence it is contaminated by infiltration of liquid waste into burst pipes. Therefore there is always high risk of waterborne diseases within the community.

Some Reasons for Water Shortage in Tandale
Shortages result from rationing by the Kinondoni Municipal Council and burst pipes. Most burst pipes are made of low quality PVC and laid above the ground surface.
The majority of water kiosks are owned by individuals. Price fluctuation is common and water availability is much depends on their willing.
Residents, particularly women and children spend valuable time queuing for water. During acute shortages, queuing time may go up to 4hrs. Although availability of water increases at night, the risk of being mugged is also higher.
Most pipes supplying water to kiosks are of small diameter. This limits the volume of water available through those outlets.
Other reasons for water shortages result from rivalry amongst the water vendors and the high value of steel pipes for thieves

Solutions to Inadequate Water Supply in Tandale
The following measures should be taken in to account in order to reduce if not to eradicate inadequate supply of water across Tandale ward.

Establishment of group water kiosks to increase stability of water prices through Participation of the Community in water programs
The community must be involved in all maters concerned with establishment of water project in their area, the community must participate start from all stages starts with initiating the project, design the project and implementation of the project. Not only the community but also other key stakeholders such as NGO’s found within the ward must participate on the projects.

From the interviews conducted show that many water projects failed to lack of participation from the community, the community can help to identify which areas is better for the project and how to conduct such project. One of the major advantages of community participation is that the project will be sustainable, because the community will fill the sense of ownership of the project. The major disadvantage of this approach is very expensive; require a lot of money and of time for training the local people and other stakeholder who will use and manage that project. Always the management of this kind of project requires money.

Also for making this approach very sustainable, cost sharing system must be applied. The community who get the service must contribute some amount of money in order to increase the life span of the project; money collected can be used in the running of project and maintenance of project. Apart from this planning approach there some technical approaches which can be applied as follow

Use of distribution pipes made of steel with a larger diameter to increase the volume and reliability of water available.
Steel pipes last longer than PVC pipes, by using steel pipes will help to reduce pipes linkages. Also the larger diameter will ensure large quantity of water to the final consumer and adequate supply of water. The disadvantage of this technique is high cost that will be use to install the steel pipes, steel pipes are more expensive than PVC pipes.


Sokoni: Eliimu Katiki Kata Ya Tandale


Mpango wa serikali ni kwamba kila kata iwe na shule ya sekondari, lakini  katika kata  ya Tandale mpango huo hahujatekelezeka. Hali ambayo inaleta shida kwa wanafunzi  walioufaulu darasa  la saba kujiunga na kidato cha kwanza. Wengi wao kubaki mtaani na kuwa tegemezi kwa wazazi, uku wengine wakipewa ujauzito wakiwa na umri mdogo.

Hali halisi ya Tandale katika elimu

Kata ya Tandale ina mitaa siita; Tumbo, sokoni, pakacha, Mtogole, Muhalitani, na Mkunduge. Katika kata ya Tandale kuna shule 4 za msingi ambazo ni; Hekima na Tandale ambazo zipo katika mtaa wa sokoni. Wakati huo huo katika mtaa wa Muhalitani zipo shule mbili za msingi ambazo ni; Muhalitani na Tandale magharibi .

Pamoja na uwepo wa shule zote hizo za msingi katika kata Tandale,  hakuna hata shule moja ya sekondari. Hali ambayo inasababisha wanafunzi wengi waliofaulu kukosa nafasi ya kujiunga na Kidato cha kwanza. Pia wanafunzi wanaochaguliwa kujiunga na kidato cha kwanza wanapata shida ya usafiri, kutokana kwamba wanapelekwa  shule za mbali.  Ili kuepukana na umbali huo ambao unasababisha matatizo kwa wanafunzi, wazazi wenye kipato cha juu na cha kati, huwapeleka watoto wao katika shule za binafsi. Wale wa kipato cha chini wanashindwa kuwapeleka katika shule hizo za binafsi, hivyo husababisha wengine kuacha kusoma kutokana na matatizo hayo.

Mazingira ya shule kwa sasa

Kulingana na sera ya Elimu ya Jamhuri ya  Muungano wa Tanzania; darasa moja linatakiwa liwe na wanafuzni wasiozidi arobaini na tano. Ila kutokana na upungufu wa shule hizo,  darasa moja lina zaidi ya wanafunzi sitini, wakati wengine wakikaa chini kutokana na upungufu wa miundumbinu kama madawati, na madarasa. Kama hali ya shule za msingi ipo  kama inavyoonekana katika swala ya idadi ya wanafunzi kuwa wengi sana , je kule waendepo kujiunga na sekondari hali ikoje, ikiwa   miundumbino haiongezeki wakati idadi ya wanafunzi inaongezeka? Hiyo ni changamoto,…

Mbali ya matatizo yaliyotajwa hapo juu, bado shule zina matatizo mengine kama ukosefu wa uzio, amabao unasababisha wanafunzi kuingia na kutoka kama wanavyotaka. Uzio unasaidia wanafunzi kuwahi shule na kupunguza utoro shuleni. Hali ni mbaya hata kwenye vyoo vya shule hizi, idadi ya matundu ya vyoo hairandani na idadi ya wanafunzi. Pia upatikanaji wa maji mashuleni ni shida, ili kujikizi na haja kubwa, watoto hulazimika kutumia makaratasi na hivyo kuziba matundu ya vyoo. Hali hii ni mbaya sana kwa sababu  inaweza kusababisha mlipuko wa magonjwa ya kuambukiza kama kipindu pindu na kuhara. Ukosefu huu wa maji, unasababisha pia ongezeko la vumbi madarasani na maeneo yazungukayo madarasa.

Ukosefu wa maeneo ya michezo kwenye Shule

Kulingana na ukosefu wa maeneo ya wazi mitaani, kiwanja kilichopo katika shule mbili za Tandale na Hekima ndicho  kinachotumiwa na jamii nzima. Kiwanja hichi kinatumika kwenye mikutano ya hadhara,michezo ya wanafuunzi na wanajamii wanaozunguka maeneo ya shule. Pia kinatumika kama eneo la wapitanjia


Economic Activities Of People In Tandale

Tandale is an informal settlement and most of its residence is of low income as they are largely engaged in formal and informal activities.

The majority of the people are engaged in informal activities in order to meet their basic needs here below are informal activities which are merely done at Tandale

Food vendors

Mama Ntlilie

Commonly known as Mama ntlilie (Mama Feed Me), these is an activity which is dominated by women (female) and this activity takes place along the streets and mostly in path junctions.

Small scale Handcraft industries


In Tandale people also engage themselves in small scale handcraft industries case of welding and other iron works as people makes charcoal cookers and house/home utensils this help to create employment especially to youth and hence to earn income for living. How ever this activity takes place within residential houses which are concentrated/compacted as a result noise pollution occurs, health risks due to iron pieces.

Informal house renting

In Tandale many people are not house owners but they just rent houses from house owners (ternants) and this is done informally since most of these people do not have clear contract between tenant and house renters. Also no tax payment since it’s done informally.

Water vending

Water Vending Cart

Majority of people in Tandale are unemployed which make them to engage in informal activities such as water vendor. Some of households have big water tanks and sell water to the nearby residents inform of buckets. These water tanks are fed by water vendor trucks which they go around to serve their customers. The price of one bucket range between Tsh.150/= to 200/=

Selling of charcoal

Due to poverty many residents don’t afford the cost of alternative energy like gas and electricity instead they use charcoal as a main source of fuel. This cause a lot of environmental problem such as air pollution.

Video library

In this shop different movies from both local and outside of the country are sold. Also they rent some movies for about Tsh.500/=

Selling vegetables

There are many shops in Tandale selling green vegetables such as cabbages, spinach and etc.Young boys selling vegetable









Mafuriko Kata Ya Tandale Mtaa Wa Mkunduge

Mkunduge ipo katika kata ya Tandale uwanda wa chini ambapo eneo limezungukwa na mto Ng’ombe. Mto Ng’ombe umeanzia Mbezi mpaka daraja la salenda. Mto huo huwa unafurika maji mengi wakati wa mvua na kusababisha mafuriko kwenye makazi ya watu hali hiyo inasababishwa na kupungua kwa kina, upana na kingo za mto huu kupungua kwa sababu ya utupaji wa taka ngumu, ujenzi wa makaazi kandokando ya mto ngo’ombe. Tatitizo hili la mafuriko hutokea hasa wakati wa mvua za masika kati ya mwezi wa pili hadi wa tano.

Sababu za mafuriko

Utupaji wa taka ngumu kwenye mto ng’ombe husababisha mkondo wa maji kuziba na
Kukosekana kwa mifereji ya mvua
Eneo lipo ukanda wa mafuriko(low land)
Ujenzi wa kandokando ya mto
Kuwepo kwa chemchem za maji nyingi(water table is high)

Athari za mafuriko katika mtaa wa Mkunduge

Kuzuka kwa magonjwa ya mlipuko kama kipundupindu, homa za matumbo, vifo, uharibifu wa miundombinu iliyopo, wananchi wanapoteza mali zao kama nyumba na thamani.


Kuhama makazi wakati wa mvua.

Wananchi wa tandale wanachukua maamuzi ya kuhama makazi kipindi mvua zinapoanza kunyesha, hii ni kwa sababu maji hujaa hadi ndani ya nyumba zao.Hali hii inasababisha usumbufu mkubwa kwa wakazi wa Tandale.

Kujenga vizimba

Kizimba kinachozuia maji kuingia ndani kipindi cha mafuriko

Mafuriko yakitokea wananchi hujenga vizimba katika milango na madirisha ya nyumba zao ili kuzuia maji kuingia ndani ya nyumba zao.

Ili kukabiliana na mafuriko pia wakazi wa Tandale hulazimika kuongeza ukuta wa nyumba kwenda juu baada ya mafuriko nyumba hutitia na kuwa fupi hivyo hulazimika kuingia gharama za kuongeza urefu wa madirisha,milango, na kuezeka upya.



  • Kuweka vifusi na viroba kuzuia maji kuingia ndani
  • Taka kuzagaa
  • Vyoo kufurika
  • Kujenga mfereji chini ya usimami wa Tasaf
  • Kutanua upana na kina cha mto
  • Kuanzisha sheria ndogondogo za mazingira
  • Kujenga mifereji ya mvua
  • Kujenga barabara ndogondogo za mitaani.